The history of the WWW wasn’t simple and still isn’t easy. In the beginning, it was a complete mess. Every browser tried to meet developers halfway without any standards or cooperation with other web browser’s developers. Interested?

It all started with Memex — a theoretical machine created by Vannevar Bush with the ability to create links between documents and books and add comments to them. Until early 90’ Memex was derided and described as unreal because we had no tools to implement this idea. But then modern computers appeared…

The beginnings

:h1.Chapter 1: Introduction
:p.GML supported hierarchical containers, such as
:li.Ordered lists (like this one),
:li.Unordered lists, and
:li.Definition lists
as well as simple structures.
:p.Markup minimization (later generalized and formalized in SGML),
allowed the end-tags to be omitted for the "h1" and "p" elements.

GML was an underline for another language called SGML which was more standardized. The main difference between these two languages is that SGML uses angle brackets instead of colons. Sample SGML documents are very similar to today’s HTML or XML documents:

<QUOTE TYPE="example">
typically something like <ITALICS>this</ITALICS>

Both GML and SGML were created to help to display documents in a more user-friendly way — e.g. with stresses or underlines, lists and so on. But there was a problem — there was no easy and scalable way to create links between the documents. There were some attempts to achieve it but they did not pass the test of time. One of them was ENQUIRE which was more like wiki pages with bi-directional hyperlinks. If you are interested in this subject, you can read the ENQUIRE manual with scans of the original manual from 1980!

The birth of HTML and HTTP

Tim Berners-Lee, pioneer of the World Wide Web, c 1990s.

Tim Berners-Lee

HTML and HTTP were easier and simpler than their predecessors — their negligible learning curve helped them take over the crawling Internet’s developing need for easily accessible content…

First WWW browsers

Mocaic Netscape
Internet Explorer 1

There were other projects of web browsers completely independent from Mocaic, e.g. Opera which was first publicly released in 1996 but works on the browser started in 1994.

However, they were not the very first projects which helped to browse WWW. The first ever WWW browser was called WorldWideWeb and was created in 1990 by Tim Berners-Lee. Other similar projects were MidasWWW and ViolaWWW. MidasWWW’s source code is available in github!


I'M a backend engineer, blogger, speaker and open-source developer :)